Land area: 3.29 million square kilometers
Capital: New Delhi
Political system and government: India
attained independence from British rule on 15 August 1947.
The 1950 Constitution provides for a parliamentary system
of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent
branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
The country has a federal structure with elected Governments
in States. There are 28 states and 7 Union Territories (administered
directly by the Central Government). There is healthy competition
between all the states to attract Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) for speedy economic growth and employment generation.
Population: 1,027 million (2001).
Population growth rate: 1.93 per cent
Population density: 324 persons per square
Life expectancy: 60.4 years, male: 61.8
years, female: 59 years
Literacy rate: 65.38 percent (Kerala
has the highest literacy rate of 90.92 per cent. As per
2001 census all States and Union Territories have achieved
a male literacy rate of 60 per cent and most of the States
have attained a female literacy rate of over 50 per cent).
Languages spoken: India is a multilingual
society with 18 principal languages recognised by the constitution.
Hindi is the language of a large percentage of people (38
percent), while English is the preferred business language.
Major religions: Majority are Hindus, though
a significant number are Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists,
International airports: Bangalore, Chennai,
Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram.
Major ports of entry: Kandla, Mumbai,
Mormugao, New Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam,
Paradip, Kolkata, and Haldia.
Climate: Mainly tropical in Southern
India but temperatures in the north range from sub-zero
degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. There are well defined seasons
in the northern region : winter (Dec Feb), Spring (Mar Apr),
Summer (May Jun), monsoons (Jul Sep) and autumn (Oct Nov).
Time zone: GMT +5 ½ hours.
Currency unit: Indian Rupee (INR), 100
paise=1 INR. Coins in vogue 50 paise, INR 1 and 5. Currency
notes INR 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000.
GDP at current prices: US$ 422 billion
Average real GDP growth: 5.4 percent (2001-02)
Inflation rate measured by CPI: 5.1 percent
Average savings rate: 23 percent (2001-02)
Cumulative FDI approved: US$ 74.3 billion
Cumulative FDI inflow: US$ 28 billion (1991-2001)
Cumulative foreign institutional investments:
US$ 22.6 billion (1991-2001)
Foreign exchange reserves: US$ 68 billion
Exchange rate: Rs.48.00 per US$ (approx.)
Foodgrains production: 209 million tonnes
Buffer foodgrains stock: 50 million tonnes
Merchandise Exports: US$ 43.8 billion (2001-02)
Principal exports: Traditional exports
include cotton yarn and textiles, readymade garments, leather
goods, gems and jewellery and agricultural and processed
food products. However, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering
goods, automotive components, transport equipment, software,
electronic goods and manufactured metals constitute the
rapidly growing export segments.
Principal markets for exports: USA, Canada,
UK, Germany, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi
Arabia, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, China, Hong Kong,
Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
Imports: US$ 51.4 billion (2001-02).
Principal imports: Capital goods, crude
oil, lubricants and other petroleum products, precious and
semi-precious stones, chemicals, edible oils and fertilizers.
Principal markets of imports: USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Nigeria,
Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Ghana,
South Africa, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and
• Stable democratic governance throughout 55 years
• Large market of a middle class of 300-350 million
people with increasing purchasing power as reflected by
a sustained growth in sales of consumer durables in recent
• Access to regional international markets through
membership of regional cooperation frameworks such as SAARC,
Indian Ocean Rim countries (IOC-ARC), and dialogue partnerships
with EU and ASEAN. India also have Memoranda of Understanding/Cooperation
partnerships with most African and Latin American regional
• Foreign investment is welcome in almost all sectors
barring those of strategic concern like atomic energy, railways
and sensitive defence production. Large and diversified
manufacturing base spread across the country.
• Thrust on technology, innovation and knowledge
based industries and services.
• Well developed R&D infrastructure and technical
and marketing services.
• Large resources of untapped natural wealth.
• Promising future in the burgeoning information
technology and biotechnology industries.
• Developed banking system, commercial banking network
of over 63,000 branches, supported by a number of international
banks, insurance joint ventures and national and state level
• Vibrant capital market comprising 23 stock exchanges
with over 9,000 listed companies.
• Developing as one of the largest cost-competitive
technical workforce nation.
• Conducive foreign investment environment that
provides freedom of entry and exit, investment, location,
choice of technology, import and export.
• Acceleration of the privatisation process and
restructuring of public enterprises.
• Current account convertibility, capital account
convertibility for foreign investors and progressive implementation
for Indian residents. Indian tourists allowed to carry US$
up to 10,000 for general purpose and US$ 25,000 for education,
healthcare and family support overseas.
• Established, independent judiciary with a hierarchy
of courts and the existence of several arbitration mechanisms
outside the courts.
• Special investment and tax incentives given for
exports and certain sectors such as power, electronics,
telecom, software, oil & gas and research and development
• Legal protection for Intellectual Property Rights.
• Import regime in conformity with WTO commitments
removal of remaining quantitative restrictions on imports
of goods into India barring certain items on grounds of
national security, defence and health.
• Establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
which provide virtual offshore operation facilities and
advantages of a free trade area.