Land & People National Insignia Polity Maps
General Facts
Land area:                              3.29 million square kilometres
Capital:                                   New Delhi
Political system and government: India is Sovereign Socilaist Secular Democratic Republic. The 1950 Constitution provides for a Parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral Parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected Governments in States. There are 29 states and 6 Union Territories.
Population:                             1.073 billion (2004 estimate).
Population growth rate:          1.95 per cent
Population density:                324 persons per square kilometre
Life expectancy:                    male: 63.87 years, female: 66.91 years
Literacy rate:                         65.4 percent
Languages spoken: India is a multilingual society with 22 principal languages recognised by the constitution. Hindi is the language of a large percentage of people (38 percent), while English is the preferred business language.

Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and others.
International airports: Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram.
Major ports of entry: Chennai, Ennore, Kandla, Kochi, Kolkata, Mormugao, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin and Vishakhapatnam.
Climate: Mainly tropical in Southern India but temperatures in the north range seasonally from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. There are well defined seasons in the northern region : winter (Dec Feb), Spring (Mar Apr), Summer (May Jun), monsoons (Jul Sep) and autumn (Oct Nov).
Time zone:                              GMT +5 ½ hours.

Currency unit:                        Indian Rupee (INR), 100 paise=1 INR. Coins in vogue 50 paise, INR 1 and 5. Currency notes INR 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000.

India’s ranking in the world

in terms of:





Arable land


Gross National Income


Electricity Generation


Production of :





Butter & Ghee






Economic profile
GDP at current prices:                      US$ 840.11 billion (2006-07 Est.)
GDP (PPP) :                                        US$ 3942 billion
GDP growth rate:                              9.4% (2006-07)
GDP Composition by sector             Services      -  55 %
                                                           Agriculture - 19%
                                                           Industry        - 26%
Inflation rate measured by CPI:       6.1percent
Unemployment rate :                         7.8% (2006)
Foreign exchange reserves:              US$ 180.0 bln (Feb 2007)
Foreign Debt :                                    US $ 136.5 bln (Sept 2006)
Exchange rate:                                   Rs.40.82 per US$  1
Food grains production:                     209.2 mln tonnes * 2006-07
Foreign Direct Investment:               US$ 12 billion (2006)
Foreign institutional Investment:      US $ 9.2 billion (2006)


Exports:                                              US$ 124.5 billion (2006-07 Apr - Mar) Fiscal year

Principal exports: Traditional exports include cotton yarn and textiles, readymade garments, leather goods, gems and jewellery and agricultural and processed food products. However, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering goods, automotive components, transport equipment, software, electronic goods and manufactured metals constitute the rapidly growing export segments.

Principal markets for exports: USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

Imports:                                           US$ 181.3 billion (2006-07 Apr - Mar) Fiscal year

Principal imports: Capital goods, crude oil, lubricants and other petroleum products, precious and semi-precious stones, chemicals, edible oils and fertilizers.

Principal markets of imports: USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Nigeria, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, South Africa, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand.

© 2003 Consulate General of India ,Sydney